How to Know Your Linux and Kernel Version

To know the version of linux and the kernel, which is embedded in your computer can be done easily. We can use the CLI (Command Line Interface) with a terminal or console.

First open a terminal or console which is on your linux system.
You can execute the following commands to know the kernel version :

$ uname -a
result :
Linux komp21-desktop 2.6.31-20-generic #58-Ubuntu SMP Fri Mar 12 05:23:09 
UTC 2010 i686 GNU/Linux


$ cat /proc/version
result :
Linux version 2.6.31-20-generic (buildd@palmer) (gcc version 4.4.1 
(Ubuntu 4.4.1-4ubuntu8) ) #58-Ubuntu SMP Fri Mar 12 05:23:09 UTC 2010

You can execute the following commands to know the Linux version :

$ cat /etc/issue
result :
Ubuntu 9.10 \n \l


$ lsb_release -a
result :
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description: Ubuntu 9.10
Release: 9.10
Codename: karmic

Looking for UUID numbers Partition, Hard drive and Removable Disc

UUID or Universally Unique Identifier usually used on linux operating system. UUID is used to mount media (hard drive). UUID function to create an alias name of the hard disk, partition of the hard drive, removable media. For example /dev/sda1 with alias UUID BA0CC49E0CC456D3. Where the UUID usually used ? In fstab. FSTAB is used to mount the media every time you boot into your system.

$ cat /etc/fstab
result :
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
# Use 'blkid -o value -s UUID' to print the universally unique identifier
# for a device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name
# devices that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
proc                                       /proc        proc  defaults           0  0  
# / was on /dev/sda7 during installation
UUID=52eda015-3ae9-48c8-ac95-d2987d09290a  /            ext4  errors=remount-ro  0  1  
# swap was on /dev/sda8 during installation
UUID=7cde522e-abcf-481f-b6f0-1cb6be185275  none         swap  sw                 0  0  
/dev/sda5                                  /media/sda5  ntfs  defaults           0  0  
/dev/sda1                                  /media/sda1  ntfs  defaults           0  0  
#/dev/sdb       /media/fda auto defaults,noauto  0  2
#/dev/sdb1       /media/fdb auto defaults,noauto  0  2
#/dev/sdc       /media/fdc auto defaults,noauto  0  2
#/dev/sd1       /media/fdd auto defaults,noauto  0  2

What's so special to use UUID, the UUID we can change the hard drive slot without disrupting our system. So, even if we change the position of the hard disk slot, the OS still will be mounting to the right media. Different if we use a direct mount (/dev/sda1, ....) to the hard drive if slot change, our system will have problems.

How to find UUID:

Type this command on your terminal or console:
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid

The result is:

Okay, if you know UUID number. Now edit your /etc/fstab, replace writings (eg) the previous "/ dev/sda5" to "UUID = 2CF49FB4F49F7F30" (from the above result)

/dev/sda5                      /media/sda5  ntfs  defaults           0  0

After :
UUID = 2CF49FB4F49F7F30        /media/sda5  ntfs  defaults           0  0

hopefully help, and good luck.

Installing WP Comulus in Blogger

Picture  besides this is a tag cloud and the categories that use the plugin wp cumulus. Wp cumulus plugin is useful to beautify the look of your blog. By making the display flash tags and categories into a ball shape.In addition, with this plugin wp cumulus, we can make a list of tags and categories is more simple. Therefore does not require a lot of places to include tags and categories from your blog.
If you want to have a tag cloud display and categories, you can follow the link below:

Horay.... My Rotate Categories on Blogspot is Works Agains

Rotate TagCloud, Blogumus

Installation Prozilla (Linux Download Accelerator) on Ubuntu 8.10

Prozilla software is one of my favorite download accelerator in Ubuntu Linux, in addition to having a graphical display mode (ProzGUI) prozilla also has a version that works in text mode "console" linux ... this is more fast and can run in background on the remote machine to your Linux .

  • Supports FTP & HTTP
  • Supports Resume Download
  • Multiple connections and configuration of connections
  • Support for FTP search and choose the fastest server automatically
  • Used restricted maximum bandwidth (bps / bytes per second)


Installing from the debian packages are already available
download prozilla_1.3.7.4-1_i386.deb from

$wget -c
$sudo dpkg -i prozilla_1.3.7.4-1_i386.deb

edit configuration on /etc/prozilla.conf :

$sudo nano /etc/prozilla.conf

specify the download directory, usually located on the bottom row:

mainoutputdir = /home/koti/film

and save...

Installing from source code

In this way we can do the installation Prozilla source code from the new version.
install the required libraries for the configuration process:

download ncurses :

$wget -c

extract the downloaded:

$tar -xzvf ncurses-5.7.tar.gz
move to extract directory

$cd ncurses-5.7

#sudo make install

$cd ..

install gettext

$sudo apt-get install gettext
download prozilla :

$wget -c

extract prozilla :

$tar -xf prozilla-2.0.4.tar.bz2
$cd prozilla-2.0.4

if error :

make[4]: Leaving directory `/home/koti/prozilla-2.0.4/libprozilla/src’
make[4]: Entering directory `/home/koti/prozilla-2.0.4/libprozilla’
make[4]: Nothing to be done for `all-am’.
make[4]: Leaving directory `/home/koti/prozilla-2.0.4/libprozilla’
make[3]: Leaving directory `/home/koti/prozilla-2.0.4/libprozilla’
make[2]: Leaving directory `/home/koti/prozilla-2.0.4/libprozilla’
Making all in src
make[2]: Entering directory `/home/koti/prozilla-2.0.4/src’
if g++ -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -I. -I. -I.. -I. -I.. -I../libprozilla/src -I../intl -I/usr/local/include -fno-inline -DLOCALEDIR=\”/usr/local/share/locale\” -Wall -ggdb -D_REENTRANT -MT main.o -MD -MP -MF “.deps/main.Tpo” \
-c -o main.o `test -f ‘main.cpp’ || echo ‘./’`main.cpp; \
then mv -f “.deps/main.Tpo” “.deps/main.Po”; \
else rm -f “.deps/main.Tpo”; exit 1; \
In file included from main.cpp:39:
download_win.h:55: error: extra qualification ‘DL_Window::’ on member √Ęprint_status’
make[2]: *** [main.o] Error 1
make[2]: Leaving directory `/home/koti/prozilla-2.0.4/src’
make[1]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1
make[1]: Leaving directory `/home/koti/prozilla-2.0.4′
make: *** [all] Error 2

solution :

Looks like the problem of error occurs because the compatibility of the compiler the GNU C / C + + latest version, to avoid this error edit the file src / download_win.h at line number 55:

void DL_Window::print_status(download_t * download, int quiet_mode);

replace with :
void print_status(download_t * download, int quiet_mode);

source :

$sudo make install

okey finish


The main options:

-R: command to enable resuming downloads if the connection is lost.
-K = 10: 10 connections to download.
-Max-bps, = 20 000: limit the maximum bandwidth consumption of 20 KB / s

Example download command:

$proz -r
$proz -r -k=10 –max-bps=20000

example run a command download on backgound:

$nohup proz -r -k=10


$screen proz -r -k=10

press "Ctrl + A, D" to hide in the background, and type "screen-r" then Enter to monitor the download process.


By using bash script we can automate downloads from an input list of urls that we will download.

create a file with the name proses.txt

$nano proses.txt

fill with download url link, a url a row.

save the file..

create an empty file with a name finish.txt

$nano finish.txt

create bash script file


copy and paste the example script below:

kb=0 #batas bandwith maksimal dalam KB/s, utk 0 berarti tidak di limit

while [ `wc -l $in | cut -d " " -f 1` != 0 ]; do
read line < $in
if [ $kb = 0 ]; then
proz -r $line;
bps=`expr ‘(’ $kb ‘)’ ‘*’ 1000`;
proz -r –max-bps=$bps $line;

echo $line >> finish.txt
sed -i ‘1 d’ $in; #menghapus baris dari file masukan (proses.txt)

to run the command:

$screen sh

press "Ctrl + A, D" to hide in the background.

for monitoring the download process:

$screen -r


Installing software from source in Linux

The procedure

The installation procedure for software that comes in tar.gz and tar.bz2 packages isn't always the same, but usually it's like this:

# tar xvzf package.tar.gz (or tar xvjf package.tar.bz2)
# cd package
# ./configure
# make
# make install

If you're lucky, by issuing these simple commands you unpack, configure, compile, and install the software package and you don't even have to know what you're doing. However, it's healthy to take a closer look at the installation procedure and see what these steps mean.

Step 1. Unpacking

Maybe you've already noticed that the package containing the source code of the program has a tar.gz or a tar.bz2 extension. This means that the package is a compressed tar archive, also known as a tarball. When making the package, the source code and the other needed files were piled together in a single tar archive, hence the tar extension. After piling them all together in the tar archive, the archive was compressed with gzip, hence the gz extension.

Some people want to compress the tar archive with bzip2 instead of gzip. In these cases the package has a tar.bz2 extension. You install these packages exactly the same way as tar.gz packages, but you use a bit different command when unpacking.

It doesn't matter where you put the tarballs you download from the internet but I suggest creating a special directory for downloaded tarballs. In this tutorial I assume you keep tarballs in a directory called dls that you've created under your home directory. However, the dls directory is just an example. You can put your downloaded tar.gz or tar.bz2 software packages into any directory you want. In this example I assume your username is me and you've downloaded a package called pkg.tar.gz into the dls directory you've created (/home/me/dls).

Ok, finally on to unpacking the tarball. After downloading the package, you unpack it with this command:

me@puter: ~/dls$ tar xvzf pkg.tar.gz

As you can see, you use the tar command with the appropriate options (xvzf) for unpacking the tarball. If you have a package with tar.bz2 extension instead, you must tell tar that this isn't a gzipped tar archive. You do so by using the j option instead of z, like this:

me@puter: ~/dls$ tar xvjf pkg.tar.bz2

What happens after unpacking, depends on the package, but in most cases a directory with the package's name is created. The newly created directory goes under the directory where you are right now. To be sure, you can give the ls command:

me@puter: ~/dls$ ls
pkg pkg.tar.gz
me@puter: ~/dls$

In our example unpacking our package pkg.tar.gz did what expected and created a directory with the package's name. Now you must cd into that newly created directory:

me@puter: ~/dls$ cd pkg
me@puter: ~/dls/pkg$

Read any documentation you find in this directory, like README or INSTALL files, before continuing!

Step 2. Configuring

Now, after we've changed into the package's directory (and done a little RTFM'ing), it's time to configure the package. Usually, but not always (that's why you need to check out the README and INSTALL files) it's done by running the configure script.

You run the script with this command:

me@puter: ~/dls/pkg$ ./configure

When you run the configure script, you don't actually compile anything yet. configure just checks your system and assigns values for system-dependent variables. These values are used for generating a Makefile. The Makefile in turn is used for generating the actual binary.

When you run the configure script, you'll see a bunch of weird messages scrolling on your screen. This is normal and you shouldn't worry about it. If configure finds an error, it complains about it and exits. However, if everything works like it should, configure doesn't complain about anything, exits, and shuts up.

If configure exited without errors, it's time to move on to the next step.

Step 3. Building

It's finally time to actually build the binary, the executable program, from the source code. This is done by running the make command:

me@puter: ~/dls/pkg$ make

Note that make needs the Makefile for building the program. Otherwise it doesn't know what to do. This is why it's so important to run the configure script successfully, or generate the Makefile some other way.

When you run make, you'll see again a bunch of strange messages filling your screen. This is also perfectly normal and nothing you should worry about. This step may take some time, depending on how big the program is and how fast your computer is. If you're doing this on an old dementic rig with a snail processor, go grab yourself some coffee. At this point I usually lose my patience completely.

If all goes as it should, your executable is finished and ready to run after make has done its job. Now, the final step is to install the program.

Step 4. Installing

Now it's finally time to install the program. When doing this you must be root. If you've done things as a normal user, you can become root with the su command. It'll ask you the root password and then you're ready for the final step!

me@puter: ~/dls/pkg$ su
root@puter: /home/me/dls/pkg#

Now when you're root, you can install the program with the make install command:

root@puter: /home/me/dls/pkg# make install

Again, you'll get some weird messages scrolling on the screen. After it's stopped, congrats: you've installed the software and you're ready to run it!

Because in this example we didn't change the behavior of the configure script, the program was installed in the default place. In many cases it's /usr/local/bin. If /usr/local/bin (or whatever place your program was installed in) is already in your PATH, you can just run the program by typing its name.

And one more thing: if you became root with su, you'd better get back your normal user privileges before you do something stupid. Type exit to become a normal user again:

root@puter: /home/me/dls/pkg# exit
me@puter: ~/dls/pkg$

Cleaning up the mess

I bet you want to save some disk space. If this is the case, you'll want to get rid of some files you don't need. When you ran make it created all sorts of files that were needed during the build process but are useless now and are just taking up disk space. This is why you'll want to make clean:

me@puter: ~/dls/pkg$ make clean

However, make sure you keep your Makefile. It's needed if you later decide to uninstall the program and want to do it as painlessly as possible!


So, you decided you didn't like the program after all? Uninstalling the programs you've compiled yourself isn't as easy as uninstalling programs you've installed with a package manager, like rpm.

If you want to uninstall the software you've compiled yourself, do the obvious: do some old-fashioned RTFM'ig. Read the documentation that came with your software package and see if it says anything about uninstalling. If it doesn't, you can start pulling your hair out.

If you didn't delete your Makefile, you may be able to remove the program by doing a make uninstall:

root@puter: /home/me/dls/pkg# make uninstall
If you see weird text scrolling on your screen (but at this point you've probably got used to weird text filling the screen? that's a good sign. If make starts complaining at you, that's a bad sign. Then you'll have to remove the program files manually.

If you know where the program was installed, you'll have to manually delete the installed files or the directory where your program is. If you have no idea where all the files are, you'll have to read the Makefile and see where all the files got installed, and then delete them.

source :

Install Google Chrome on Ubuntu 9.10

Make sure your computer internet connection is connected

First let your Ubuntu know where it should find chromium-browser deb package:

$sudo pico /etc/apt/sources.list

add the following lines:
deb jaunty main
deb-src jaunty main

Replace jaunty with hardy, intrepid or karmic depending which version you run at your computer. If you feel this information is not sufficient for you, follow this link to get Ubuntu official information on this matter or follow Launchpad help.

The next step is to install Chromium browser on your terminal:

$sudo apt-get update
$sudo apt-get install chromium-browser

$sudo aptitude install chromium-browser
Once you press enter Ubuntu will download around 18 MB of data from launchpad’s server and will install Chromium with gnome menu entries and shortcuts. Now you can go to System menu –> Internet –> Chromium Web Browser in order to launch Google browser.

Installing Single Drupal On Multiple (Sub) Domains

Base on

If you wanted to install Drupal on the same machine for the  different (sub)domains then it could be done by installing drupal only 1 core while the others will follow.

The first step is to install drupal as usual for the first site (eg Then to install drupal into two ( can be done by:

  1. create a database for the site b
  2. create a directory under the directory  at sites, in the site
  3. copying files  default.settings.php to the directory and changed the ownership to be writable by apache
  4. create a directory of files under the directory and changed the mode
  5. match the apache vhost  with same configuration on except the name of the URL only 
Yup that's all modules, themes and libraries if desired customizations can be made directory in the directory.

Horay.... My Rotate Categories on Blogspot is Works Agains

The first time I saw my rotating menu which is on my blogspot. I see the strangeness of which rotate blogumus I do not want to work, after I have studied the link that connects proved problematic. Two references address to the following address:

When I do click on that address then what happens is as follows:
To overcome these problems, follow these steps:

  1. Download WP Cumulus WP Plugin here
  2. Extract in some folder
  3. Upload 2 file into your hosting, we can use free web hosting for example, that files is swfobject.js and tagcloud.swf
  4. Or we can copy paste from this script
  5. Log in and click on the blogger layout, make sure the widget label has been attached, if not, then select Page Elements ---> Add a Page Element and select the label (with the notes you do not have a label, if it true go to step no 6)
  6. Once in, and add the save, click the Edit HTML, check Expand Template Widget, find the section that has a code like the following,
         <--!Beside here you can include the Blogumus--> 
  8. Replace <--!Beside here you can include the Blogumus--> with the following code
  9. <b:includable id='main'>
    <b:if cond='data:title'>
    <div class='widget-content'>
    <script src='' type='text/javascript'/>
    <div id='flashcontent'>Blogumulus by <a href=''>Roy Tanck</a> and <a href=''>Amanda Fazani</a>, Edited By<a href=''>mopheat</a></div>
    <script type='text/javascript'>
    // this variable, to change the colour and dimention above
    var so = new SWFObject("", "tagcloud", "200", "160", "7", "#000000"); //dimention and beground color
    so.addParam("wmode", "transparent");
    so.addVariable("tcolor", "0x4CBC00");//font colour(hexa)
    so.addVariable("mode", "tags");
    so.addVariable("distr", "true");
    so.addVariable("tspeed", "150"); //fast rotate
    so.addVariable("tagcloud", "<tags><b:loop values='data:labels' var='label'><a expr:href='data:label.url' style='14'><></a></b:loop></tags>");
    so.addParam("allowScriptAccess", "always");
    <b:include name='quickedit'/>
    </div><small>Click <a href=''>here</a> to install tag cloud blogumus as above</small>
  10. Done

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